Effect of Warm Pads, Effleurage Massage or Trendelenburg Position in Reducing Shoulder Pain after Gynecological Laparoscopic Operations

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor of Maternal & Newborn Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Beni-Suef University, Egypt

2 Assistant Professor Obstetrics and Gynecology Faculty of Medicine Beni-sueif , University, Egypt.

3 Lecturer of Obstetrics and Gynecological nursing, Faculty of Nursing Zagazig University


Background: shoulder pain is a frequent complaint following gynecological laparoscopic surgery.
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a warm pad, effleurage massage, or
Trendelenburg Position for reducing shoulder pain after gynecological laparoscopic operations A
quasi-experimental design was utilized in the current study. Setting: The study was conducted at the
gynecological unit of the obstetric department at Beni Suef University and Zagazig University
Hospitals; during the period from July 2021 to June 2022. a convenience sample of 150 women
after gynecological laparoscopic operation were enrolled in the study in the following groups (warm
pads group, effleurage massage group, and Trendelenburg Position group). Four instruments were
used for data collection. The tool I: A semi-: structured interviewing questionnaire, Tool II:
Physiologic and behavioral response to pain sheet (PBRPS), and Tool III: Numerical pain rating
scale. Tool IV Pregnant Women`s satisfaction. Results: The study finding revealed that women who
use effleurage massage after gynecological laparoscopic operations expressed less shoulder pain
intensity than those women in the other 2 groups who use warm pads or Trendelenburg Position
after gynecological laparoscopic operations with highly significant differences between the three
studied groups regarding all items of the physiological responses with (p equal <0.0001).
Conclusion: Effleurage Massage revealed a higher effect than both warm pad and Trendelenburg
Positions in reducing shoulder pain after the laparoscopic operation. Recommendation: Nursing
intervention should be updated to include non-pharmacological management of shoulder pain after
the laparoscopic operation.