The Role of Environmental Factors in the Development of Chronic Diseases: A Comprehensive Systematic Review

Document Type : Original Article


Assistant Professor of Public and Environmental Health, Public Health Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Al-Baha University, Al Baha, Saudi Arabia


Background: The development of chronic diseases is influenced by a multitude of factors, including genetic predisposition, lifestyle choices, and environmental exposures. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the significant role played by environmental factors in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases.Aims: This a systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current literature on the role of environmental factors in the development of chronic diseases.Methods: A thorough search of electronic databases was conducted, and relevant studies published between 2015 and 2023 were included in the review. The included articles covered a wide range of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, metabolic conditions, and cancer. Various environmental factors were examined, such as air pollution, water contamination, occupational hazards, chemical exposures, and lifestyle-related factors.Result: The findings of this systematic review highlight the substantial impact of environmental factors on chronic disease development. Air pollution emerged as a prominent risk factor, with studies demonstrating its association with increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases and respiratory disorders. Additionally, exposure to environmental contaminants, such as heavy metals and pesticides, was implicated in the development of metabolic conditions and cancer.Conclusion: This review emphasizes the importance of considering environmental factors in chronic disease etiology, advocating for targeted interventions to mitigate risks, and promoting healthier environments. Future research should explore underlying mechanisms and evaluate preventive strategies' effectiveness.